無建斯建——奇峰村史館

作者:阿拉雷 來源:gooood谷德設計網 日期:2019/5/13 14:43:24 點擊:314 屬于:會展排期

安徽省池州市石臺縣的奇峰村,位于牯牛降風景區的山腰。第一次去現場,便是坐車沿陡峭的盤山路繞了一個多小時進的村。村口高聳著兩株銀杏,胸徑目測需2-3人合抱;據說有千年樹齡。村前一片平整的農田, 種著一人多高的莊稼;白墻黑瓦的農宅依山而建,奇峰村便逐漸隱退至山間竹林里。

On the mountainside of Guniujiang Resort sits Qifeng Village of Shitai County, Chizhou City, Anhui Province. Our first visit there took us an hour’s drive around the steep and winding mountain roads. At the entrance of the village stood two ginkgo trees, which were said to be over 1,000 years old, with trunks so strong that at least two or three people were needed to encircle one. Flat farmlands with crops as tall as a man stretched in front of the village, and farmhouses with white walls and black tiles lined along the hillside. Qifeng Village seemed to have receded into the bamboo groves in the mountain.

▼奇峰村全貌,aerial view to Qifeng Village

初入奇峰村,村里的房子透著一股簡樸實用的拙勁兒。沒有徽州古鎮宅院的復雜格局,沒有名家大戶里木雕屋架裝飾,只有寫滿年代感的小青瓦的坡屋頂,方洞窗,偶爾的一點披檐和山墻,就是精心的點綴。村口的房子多為公共建筑,如碾坊、農具庫、公社隊屋等;村民住家則藏在后山深處。

On first sight, houses in the village revealed roughness simple and practical. Unlike Huizhou courtyards with complex layout and mansions with delicate decorations, the village houses stayed simple with black-tiled pitched roofs and square windows revealing a sense of time, while draped eaves and gable walls were the only decorative elements. Buildings at the entrance of the village were mostly for public use, such as mills, tool storage rooms and the commune’s house, while villagers’ homes receded deep into the mountain.

▼東南角全景,project overview from southeast

▼西南角屋頂,roof top view from southwest

隊屋曾經是奇峰村生產大隊的公共用房。室內有兩層:底層用于儲存農具、加工糧食,囤積材料;二層用來開會及勞作中途的休息。 現如今隨著農村的凋敝, 一層存放的農具顯然已久未使用, 倒是停了好些摩托車,成了臨時車庫, 二層也因年久失修漏雨而空置。但在雜物的間隙中,仍能看到木柱底部考究的石柱礎,也能在瓦片漏光的二樓,近距離觀察到木屋架中清晰的榫卯木作。這些榫卯木構,應該是當年本地工匠的杰作,直白而樸實。木梁、木椽子,還留著加工前樹干的曲線輪廓,榫孔卯頭雖然看起來雕刻得隨意、沒有裝飾,卻也合乎木作原理,多數都未糟朽損壞,仍可堪用。梁柱和墻上滿是毛筆或粉筆留下的木工草稿,還有政治標語,成為一套寫在房子里的村史資料。

▼改造前建筑外觀,the original building

The two-storied commune’s house was once a public place for Qifeng Village’s production brigade. The lower floor was used for tool storage, crop processing and material hoarding, while the upper floor was used for meetings and breaks between working shifts. Nowadays, with the withering of villages, the tools in the first floor were idle, and a few motorcycles turned the space into a temporary parking lot. Moreover, the second floor was unoccupied due to rain leakage and lack of maintenance. However, the fine stone plinths under the wooden pillars could still be seen through the gaps between the piled-up stuffs, and we could take a close look at the simple and straightforward mortise and tenon work on the roof truss, which could be described as masterwork by local craftsmen in the old days. The curves of the tree trunks could still be seen on the wooden beams and rafters, and the mortise and tenon work, though seemingly random and decoration-free, were made in compliance with the principles of carpentry and mostly undamaged and usable now. Carpentry drafts and political slogans written with chalks and ink brushes were all over the beams, pillars and walls, serving as a record of the village’s history in the house.

▼改造后東北角內街夜景,inner street on the northeast side after renovation

這樣的房子,對村民或許是雞肋,但對于設計師卻是可打磨的璞玉。安徽的古村落與自然的關系,總有些天然的默契,布局上切合地形,道路和排水體系應地就勢,建造規模也多緊湊合宜,不多占農田綠地。在這樣對自然敬畏和對自我克制的徽派哲學里,更新古村的最好方式,當然不是拆舊建新,更不是無節制的占地蓋房。我們嘗試將留存的隊屋,通過整修和適度的改造,重新服務于村里的現代生活,而不再是封塵于歷史、只能遠觀的老古董。此為“無建斯建”。

Such a house might seem to be of little value to villagers, but for architects, it was just like an uncut jade to be carved into great works. Ancient villages in Anhui Province are always in some sort of inherent harmony with nature, with their layouts, roads and drainage systems in compliance with the terrains. Besides, the scales of the villages are mostly compact in an appropriate way for less farmland occupation. In the context of a philosophy featuring awe for nature and self-restraint, the best solution to village renewal would never be building new houses over old ones, not to mention undisciplined occupation of land. Instead, we proposed renovation and moderate transformation of the preserved commune’s house, so that it can serve people’s life once again, rather than be deserted and forgotten like an old-fashioned article. We call such a project a “buildingless building”.

▼剖面透視圖,sectional perspective

在這樣的前提下,隊屋的更新,需要同時服務于村里人和村外人。對常駐的村民,它是休閑聚會、喝茶聊天的公共客廳;對外來的游客,它是展示村史和特色的村史館。 現場調研后對隊屋的現狀評估結果如下: 整體木結構,大木作保存良好,僅有少數木梁柱表面腐朽,可打磨或局部替換;小木作(主要是門窗)多數已腐朽變形,基本沒有保留價值,需全部替換;建筑外墻雖為填充磚墻,卻因長年疏于維護,磚縫的粘土砂漿脫落得厲害,室內外多處磚墻縫隙暴露,需重新勾縫并加固。因此改造的策略, 遵循以下的原則:

Under this premise, the future commune’s house should be used by both villagers and visitors. For local residents, it would be a public lounge where they can gather and chat over a cup of tea. For visitors from outside, it would be a museum showcasing the history and features of Qifeng Village. After on-site survey of the house, the status of the house could be described as follows: The overall timber structure and structural carpentry were in good condition, with just a few timber beams decayed on the surface, which could be polished or partially replaced. Joinery and non-structural carpentry work (mostly doors and windows) were generally deformed and should be replaced completely. On the exterior brick-filled walls, the clay mortar in the brick joints was mostly detached due to lack of maintenance, with lots of exposed brick joints in need of jointing and reinforcement. As a result, our renovation strategies were made in accordance with the following principles:

▼改造前室內外原貌,exterior and interior before renovation

 

01.
以結構加固和外墻屋面的修復為主, 解決老屋漏雨,透風,結構安全隱患等基本問題。
Focus on structural reinforcement and the restoration of exterior walls and the roof, so as to eliminate air leakage, wind leakage and potential structural risks.

在著手修整前, 設計師和工匠們先檢查了一遍隊屋木結構和墻體的現狀,確定了以下幾個最要緊部位的修復方法:屋面,木構架和外墻。原屋面為單層小青瓦防水, 漏點較多,需增加屋面木望板和卷材防水層,再搭瓦。原主體木構架,柱子和大部分主梁保持得還算完好,只需將局部的腐朽和發霉部位打磨;椽子因為挨著瓦片,多數朽得厲害,故決定全邊更換。原建筑外墻上的窗洞很小, 有的甚至是磚頭大的通風孔, 考慮到安徽夏熱冬冷的氣候特征,在屋頂上對應的每個柱跨內增加了一個側高窗, 以加強室內四季的通風,尤其在春夏季,避免過度潮濕悶熱影響室內使用環境。

▼剖面改造前后示意,section before and after renovation

Before getting down to the renovation work, the designers and craftsmen checked the status of the timber structure and walls, and decided on renovation methods for the most crucial parts, including the roof, the timber frame and the exterior walls. On the roof, only one layer of small black tiles were laid for rain proof, where lots of leakage points could be found. As a result, new timber roof boarding and waterproof membranes would be laid underneath the tiles. As for the main structure, the pillars and most main beams were well preserved, with only a few decayed and moldy spots to be polished. Most rafters were decayed as they were close to the tiles, so all of them would be replaced. The original openings on the walls were small, among which were some ventilation holes no larger than a brick. Considering the local climatic feature of hot summers and cold winters, new clerestory windows were added, one at each column span for better ventilation, especially in spring and summer with excessive heat and moisture.

▼修復后屋面及側高窗,clerestory windows were added to the roof

▼改造后東立面,east facade after renovation

外墻部分是徽州地區常見的磚砌加白灰粉刷,粉刷面有若干裂縫,白灰脫落處能明顯看到磚之間的砂漿灰縫已空。磚墻的結構弱化最容易發生在磚縫,故與結構咨詢專家商量,最好能給磚墻重新勾縫, 以加強磚墻的整體性。隊屋的外墻面,簡直就是一本微縮歷史筆記,在白灰粉墻上留有簡單的傳統彩繪,大躍進時期口號,還有文革時期為免于破壞被塞入外墻的抱鼓石等等。為了保留這些信息,外磚墻重新勾縫后,抹灰的部位盡量避讓了“歷史遺跡”區,讓時間的痕跡能從建筑的外皮,一層層的讀取。

▼內街,inner street

On the exterior brick walls with white-ash paintings, built in the most common way in Huizhou region, some cracks could be seen on the surface, and the joints of bricks underneath were already empty as the mortar had gone off. As the brick joints were highly relevant to structural weakening, we consulted structural experts and suggested re-jointing of the brickwork for better structural integrity. The exterior walls were just like a miniature history note, with simple traditional paintings, slogans of the Great Leap Forward period, and drum-shaped bearing stone tucked in the walls to avoid destruction in the Cultural Revolution. To preserve all the information, the ash painting avoided the areas with “historic records”, so that people can read these information of the past layer by layer from the skin of the building.

▼修復后入口屋檐,ceiling of the entrance

 

02.
用對原有空間做減法的方式,增加多樣化的使用模式,提高利用率。
Do “subtraction” to the original space for more diversified functionality and higher efficiency.

隊屋的原狀,是兩層滿鋪,樓梯解決在中部一個柱跨開間內,二層靠屋檐的末跨,凈高不足1.3m,幾乎無法使用。故改造中,將沿外墻的末跨打通為通高吹拔;最重要的改動,是將最端頭的一跨兩側實墻打通,去掉二層樓板,形成兩層通高的內街,再將樓梯置于此跨,把原來的室內空間變成公共穿行的內街。不僅增加了展廳與公眾的接觸面,讓人不進室內就能在內街里觀展,不進展廳就能用上二樓的公共空間。這些處理,讓一層的村史展廳和二層的村民活動中心可獨立管理,分開運營。二層的村民活動區借助吹拔與底層展廳也能互為對景。實現了一個空間,兩組經營,多種模式的使用可能性。

▼平面改造前后示意,plan before and after renovation

▼屋頂鳥瞰,rooftop view

The original commune’s house had two floors covering all spans, with the staircase located in a span in the middle. The span neighboring the eave had a net height less than 1.3 meters, forming an unserviceable space. So we transformed the space at that span into a double-height one. Plus, at the span on the opposite side of the house, we made some very crucial changes: walls on both sides of the span, as well as the floor slab of the 2nd floor were removed to form an interior double-height “street”, where the staircase were relocated. In this way, the formerly interior space was transformed into a public street, enlarging the interface between the hall and the visitors, as well as enabling people to have an overview of the exhibition on the 1st floor and get to the public space on the 2nd floor directly. Moreover, the 1st and 2nd floor were connected through the double-height space, forming views for people inside both spaces. These measures have made it possible to separately operate the exhibition hall on the 1st floor and the villagers’ lounge on the 2nd floor, presenting a space of “double operation units and multi functions”.

▼入口中庭,entrance atrium

▼布展前展廳,exhibition hall

▼布展后展廳,during exhibition

▼展廳吹拔,double-height space

▼二層村民活動室,villagers’ lounge on the 2nd floor

▼二層改造后木構架,wooden structure after renovation

▼二層吹拔區,double height space on the 2nd floor

▼活動室夜間視角,lounge night view

 

03.
就地取材,加工回用。
Use local materials and focus on recycling and processing.

無論是屋面的青瓦, 還是二層簡單的木樓板, 都是耐久的老材料,只要仔細的拆除回收,對青瓦分揀處理,對木板稍作削切打磨,就能有效的回用。既節省了建造材料, 又讓改造后的建筑延續原有的歷史文脈。這個原則看似簡單,執行起來費勁,可謂強拆容易細拆難。最終依靠以本地村民為主的工匠,把屋面上一簸箕一簸箕吊到二層的青瓦,挑選摘揀后分組搬到戶外的空地,整齊的碼好,為后續的屋面修整做準備。二層的木樓板也是,需仔細拆卸,去釘刨皮,打磨平整后在背陰通風處存好備用。由于改造后二層的面積減少,故原樓板木料去掉處理的折損量正好夠用。

▼施工過程,construction phase

From black tiles on the roof to the simple wooden floor on the 2nd floor, durable materials could be found and re-used. For example, the sorted black tiles and the polished wooden slabs can both be utilized, saving building materials while preserving the historic context. However, this seemingly easy strategy was not easy to implement at all, for targeted and selective dismantling of the building parts was more difficult than demolishing the whole house. In the end, the work was done thanks to the efforts of the craftsmen, who were mostly local villagers. They took the black tiles from the roof to the 2nd floor with dustpans, sorted them out and then carried them outside to lay them in groups, so that they would be re-used on the renovated roof. The renovation of the floor slab on the 2nd floor was also heavy work. People had to carefully dismantle the floor slabs and remove the nails on them, whittle them, and then store them in a cool and dry place. Since the area of the 2nd floor was reduced, the amount of the whittled wooden floor slabs could still meet the demand.

▼修復后的石礎,the stone foundation after restoration

 

04.
盡可能的用當地工匠熟悉的工法,將工業化的現代部品構件和施工方式控制在最小范圍內。
Adopt techniques that local craftsmen were familiar with, and keep the usage of industrialized building parts and construction methods to the minimum.

這有兩層原因。其一,奇峰村處于石臺縣深山里,物流交通不算便利,工業程度自然也不高。采用工匠熟悉的傳統工法,在建造階段能解決“特殊的配件/材料”不好采購以及師傅們對工業化建造不會做的問題。 和地方工匠接觸越多越發現,他們是經驗型匠人,連讀圖都是經驗型,圖紙看到七七八八就按自己的理解來,不求完全一致。所以超出其經驗外的做法, 即便設計師圖紙畫得再細致,也無法要求他們短時間內按圖完成, 反而會變成不倫不類的半成品。

There were two reasons for this strategy. First, Qifeng Village was located in a remote mountainous area where transportation was inadequate and the level of industrialization was relatively low. Traditional techniques, which local craftsmen were familiar with, could solve problems caused by the difficulty of purchasing specific building parts and the craftsmen’s unfamiliarity with industrialized construction. As we got to know better about the craftsmen, we found that their work, including the reading of drawings, were all done by experience, which means that they got down to construction work with just a rough understanding of the drawings instead of implementing everything on the drawings. Therefore, anything beyond their experience could not be completed quickly and the result would not be as good as expected no matter how detailed the drawing was.

▼施工過程,construction phase

其二,這一策略在后期運營維護的階段,能解決“讓本地師傅會修”的難題。城里建筑的運營維護,可以依賴廠家的售后維修,依賴大量的專業技術工人;但村里不行,百分之九十的房屋保養,靠的是村民自己。 舉個簡單的例子,由于配合展陳大廳的燈具是專業射燈, 廠家發貨時漏了幾個配件,本是在城市里是極常見的電器元件,分分鐘就能配齊裝上;但在村里就得等上幾天,到貨后再由師傅開車下山到鎮上提取。 所以隊屋改造中所有的門、窗、天窗,都采用最簡單傳統的插銷式開啟善,玻璃的安裝方式也是傳統的木框嵌入式, 樓梯的部位除了少量鋼結構骨架,其余也都是常見的梁板拼搭連接。

Second, this strategy made it possible for local craftsmen to repair the building by themselves in the phase of operation and maintenance. Unlike the operation of urban buildings, which could be facilitated by manufacturers and professional technicians, the maintenance work in the village was mostly done by local people. For example, the lighting fixtures in the exhibition hall were provided by a specialized manufacturer, and several parts were missing in the delivery process. It took several days for the missing parts to be mailed to the town at the foot of the mountain, and a craftsman had to drive down the mountain to fetch them. Considering this, all the doors, windows and skylights were designed with bolted sashes, and the installation of glasses were done with a traditional way, where the glass was inserted in the wooden frame. The installation of staircases was mostly done through the common lap-jointing of beams and slabs except for some steel framework.

▼內街頂棚夜景,ceiling lighting effect

這個策略說著簡單,實踐起來也不容易。在理想的設計效果和現實的工匠技藝和經驗習慣之間,總有幾輪往返溝通,各退一步的拉鋸,而且設計師還得克制個人審美喜好和工業構造的習慣性做法。最終隊屋呈現的,就是在以上四條改造原則下,項目業主、地方工匠和建筑師三方各自堅持但又互相包容的結果。對設計團隊而言,是“無建斯建”最為徹底的一次實踐。村里看似沒有新房子的痕跡,但無論是入村的場地景觀,還是隊屋周邊的小巷,以及建筑內外的空間,在此番“微創手術”后都更能融入村民的日常生活、給外來游客更親切自然的體驗。項目完成后,村民們主動送來了自家珍藏的木雕石刻等老宅構件,各種手抄本的村史文稿,還有農耕生活的各種器物,以豐富村史館的展陳;把這個公共的房子當做自己家的一部分,閑來招呼朋友上二樓喝茶小聚,讓隊屋重新歸隊,活起來。

▼東南角夜景全景,night view from southeast

However, this strategy was easier said than done. There were always gaps between the ideal of design and the reality of the craftsmen’s experience and techniques, so several rounds of negotiation and mutual compromises were inevitable. Moreover, as architects, we had to restrain ourselves from personal preferences and conventional practices that were highly industrialized. The commune’s house that we finally presented was a result of persistence and compromises by the client, the local craftsmen and the architects. For our design team, this project was a most thorough practice of our “buildingless” approach. The completion of the project hasn’t left a sign of new building on the village, but the landscape at the village entrance, the alleys around the commune’s house, and the interior and exterior spaces of the building, were all more harmonious with the people’s life and the village, and more friendly to visitors from outside. To enrich the collection of the historic museum of the village, the villagers spontaneously brought wood and stone carvings of old buildings, manuscripts of the village’s history and farming tools from their houses. They have taken this public place as part of their home, where they can invite their friends to the 2nd floor for a cup of tea. In this way, the commune’s house became a dynamic place again, reviving its role of serving the people.

▼樹下景觀,landscape

這一次的實踐,讓我們有了一些更深的思考和體會。農村的“沒有建筑師的建筑”,折射的其實是這樣一種狀態:當設計師用他受過訓練的思維,扎到農村,不見得真能扎下去,因為農村不見得真的需要他受過訓練的那種做法。如何能對農村樸素的“沒有建筑師的建筑”有所反思或者提升,避免直接將城市經驗帶到農村,尤其是避免把農村當成展示設計師自我的舞臺“秀”,是“無建斯建”的一個基本出發點。在我們看來,對建筑的處理,能讓人感覺不到其中刻意而為的設計,卻能有舒適自然的體驗,就像《道德經》所講的“大音希聲,大象無形”,可能會是當下鄉村建設的一種更為貼切的方式。

This project has inspired some in-depth thinking in us. The “architecture without architects” in rural areas has revealed a specific situation where it was very hard for architects with trained ways of thinking to truly “root” himself in the village, for his trained experience was not necessarily what was needed there. Our intention for the project of “buildingless building” was to provoke reflection and improvement of the simple “architecture without architects” in villages, to avoid applying experiences of our practices in cities directly to rural projects, especially taking the projects as shows of personal styles. In our opinion, the most appropriate way of today’s village construction should be one that makes people feel at ease in the space without deliberate interference, as described by a famous saying in Tao Te Ching by Lao Tsu:”A great sound is inaudible, and a great image is formless.”

▼村口綠地和銀杏樹,green area with a ginkgo tree at the entrance to the village

▼平面圖,plans

▼剖面圖,sections

▼日照分析,daylighting

▼通風分析,natural ventilation

無建斯建——奇峰村史館
項目信息:奇峰村史館
項目地點:安徽省 池州市,石臺縣,奇峰村
建成時間:2018.10.15
建筑面積:245㎡
建筑設計:SUP素樸建筑工作室/ 清華大學建筑學院
建筑設計團隊:宋曄皓,孫菁芬,蔣春雨,陳曉娟,解丹,褚英男,黃致昊 
照明設計咨詢:清華大學建筑學院張昕工作室
結構咨詢:孫曉彥,龔政
室內展陳設計:合肥壹間室內設計有限公司
項目業主方:奇峰村村委會
施工單位:黃山永筑建設工程有限公司
攝影:王睿

Project: History Museum of Qifeng Village
Location: Qifeng Village, Shitai County, Chizhou City, Anhui Province.
Time of Completion: 2018/10/15
Building Area: 245 square meters
Architectural Design: SUP Atelier/ School of Architecture, Tsinghua University
Architectural Design Team: Song Yehao, Sun Jingfen, Jiang Chunyu, Chen Xiaojuan, Xie Dan, Chu Yingnan, Huang Zhihao
Illumination Design & Consultation: Zhang Xin Studio of School of Architecture, Tsinghua University
Structural Consultation: Sun Xiaoyan, Gong Zheng
Exhibition Design: Hefei Yijian Interior Design Company 
Client: Qifeng Village Committee
Contractor: Huangshan Yongzhu Construction Co., Ltd.
Photographer: Wang Rui

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